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Training Activities 2

This document gives an overview of the activities the APOSDLE project consortium has undertaken in the last 12 project months (M7-M18) in the areas of internal and external training. Moreover, we give a plan on how these activities will continue in the remainder of the project with an emphasis on the next two years.

The purpose of the training activities in Work Package IX serves two main goals: consortium internal training to ensure a smooth cooperation of all consortium partners and external training to organisations outside the consortium. Furthermore, related to the core ideas of APOSDLE the philosophy of workplace learning will be integrated in the APOSDLE training activities as well.

This document is aimed at both summarising the progress achieved within the training activities and planning the training activities for the next 12 months (M19-M30).

Firstly the components of the training plan (internal and external training) are briefly presented and explained. Then the progress achieved since the first deliverable on training activities (D 9.1), is summarised. That followed an updated overview of Partner training needs and contributions as well as the general concern for Training development and provision, based on the training form (cf. 7 Appendix) are depicted. To better understand this summary an explanation is given and the process for the next steps in the Work Package IX “Training Activities” is described. Moreover the training plan form which has been distributed among the APOSDLE consortium is attached in the appendix.

Second Prototype APOSDLE

This document reports on the “Second Prototype APOSDLE”, an available prototype system which is running on dedicated project servers. This document describes the main features of this prototype, giving also insight into development issues without the need of having access to the actual prototype.

The base for this deliverable is the “Software Architecture Document” together with the “Use Scenarios & Requirements for 2nd Prototypes”, where a detailed description of requirements and architecture is given (see 1.3 Related Documents).

According to the Description of Work the Second Prototype APOSDLE is subdivided into five Deliverables (D I.4, D II.4, D III.4, D IV.4, D V.4). This document combines all these deliverables into a single document, thus making it easier to access information about the prototype in its entirety.

However, each deliverable denotes exactly one chapter in the document:

• Work & Modelling Tools – WP I
• Learning Tools – WP II
• Collaboration Tools – WP III
• Platform (Integrated Knowledge Structure Part) – WP IV
• Platform (Semantic Spaces Part) – WP V

In addition to these work package specific chapters, there is one chapter which is common to all work packages, illustrating a guided tour through the prototype from the view of an end user.

Overall this second prototype is an important milestone in the APOSDLE project. It will be deployed and evaluated directly at the application partners.

Scope of APOSDLE Target Group, Problems and Needs

This deliverable reports the results from the first effort to reach beyond the 4 application partners in the APOSDLE consortium to produce results with which to compare the in-project perspective with the needs of the wider possible markets for APOSDLE. The goal was to discover and define the scope of the APOSDLE socio-technical target group and the problems and needs related to its adoption as seen from outside of the project consortium.

We employed two basic techniques: questionnaires, circulated to potential customers of APOSDLE in the UK, Germany and France, and a face-to-face focus group with one selected commercial organisation. These techniques helped to discover and document needs, problems, perceptions and attitudes towards APOSDLE as well as the current use of learning and knowledge management tools in these organisations.

Results from the survey revealed that a sizeable number of the respondents felt there was scope and indeed a need for the use of a tool such as APOSDLE, either alongside existing solutions not deemed fully satisfactory, to integrate related software tools in use, or to provide additional features that are not being supported in organisations at the moment.

The focus group additionally provided insights into the opinions and perceptions of the participants on the APOSDLE system. They revealed issues that may arise following its introduction in the organisation and highlighted the fact that solutions may need to be put in place in organisations for APOSDLE to be used to its full potential.

Most of the answers to the questionnaires came from organisations in the field of Requirement Engineering and the participants to the focus group were also engineers with experience or an interest in the field. This gave rich insight into this area of expertise. More research is needed and has been planned to broaden the sample and collect further data.

This report concludes with problems and needs drawn from the data collected in terms of the main aspects to consider in extending APOSDLE to a wider market.

Legal and Ethical Issues Version 1

This document gives an overview of the activities the APOSDLE project consortium has undertaken in the first and second project year in the privacy area while rolling out the socio-technical solution APOSDLE into small or medium enterprises (SMEs) or departments of a global (European) company. In consultation with SAP’s departments of Works Council, Corporate Legal and Data Protection & Privacy Office and IHK security consultants a privacy policy was specified to fulfil the seven principles Notice, Purpose, Consent, Security, Disclosure, Access and Accountability as stated in OECD’s recommendations for protection of personal data and in directive 95/46/EC on the protection of personal data. The experiences and resulting privacy policy have been summarised in the paper “Privacy Issues when rolling out an E-Learning Solution” accepted for ED-Media 2008 in Vienna.

In the first chapter, the purpose and scope of this document are specified. Chapter “Directive 95/46/EC on the protection of personal data” motivates how Directive 95/46/EC protects individuals with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data. Here, it must be noted that EU directives are addressed to the member states, and aren't legally binding for citizens in principle. The member states must transpose the directive into internal law. Directive 95/46/EC on the protection of personal data had to be transposed by the end of 1998. All member states have enacted their own data protection legislation.

Chapter 3 steps into data protection principles at SAP. Instead of claiming to be complete, this chapter addresses the privacy basics which might be slightly different in another use case depending on boundary conditions of the company or country. In consultation with SAP departments of Works Council, Corporate Legal and Data Protection & Privacy Office a privacy policy was specified to fulfil the seven principles Notice, Purpose, Consent, Security, Disclosure, Access and Accountability as stated in OECD’s recommendations for protection of personal data and in directive 95/46/EC on the protection of personal data. This policy will have to be signed by APOSDLE users before logging on for the first time.

Chapter 4 describes security management within APOSDLE. Here, security and privacy issues have to be implemented by the task observer, the security manager of the central server and the privacy enhancement services. The last paragraph shortly describes a potential approach to integrate Web Service Security as a standardized way to ensure SOAP message integrity and confidentiality.

The undertaken actions in terms of legal and technical issues shown in this report allow to roll-out APOSDLE into organisations. Finally, the success of the prototype or later an APOSDLE-like product depends heavily on the trust of the user into the system. This user behaviour will be studied during the evaluation of the second APOSDLE prototype in more detail.

Integrated Modelling Methodology Version 1

This document describes the APOSDLE Integrated Modelling Methodology. This methodology, developed within the APOSDLE project, guides the process of creation of the application domain dependent parts of the APOSDLE Knowledge Base. The APOSDLE Knowledge Base provides the basis for reasoning within the APOSDLE System.

The methodology consists of five distinct phases, which cover the entire process of model creation, from the initial selection of the application domain, to its informal, and then formal, specification, and finally to the validation and revision of the final Knowledge Base:

    • Phase 0. Scope & Boundaries. In this phase the scope and boundaries of the application domain are determined and documented. The first step of this phase was to use questionnaires to elicit the main tasks and learning needs of the different Application Partners in order to identify candidate application domains for learning (also called learning domains). The candidate application domains were then discussed and the final domain was decided upon, and briefly documented. The key aspect of this phase is to support the Application Partners to identify a learning domain appropriate for the "learn @ work" approach taken by APOSDLE.
    • Phase 1. Knowledge Acquisition. The goal of this phase is the acquisition of knowledge about the application domains that have to be formalised and integrated in the APOSDLE knowledge base. The proposed methodology aims to extract as much knowledge as possible from both Domain Experts and available digital resources identified by the Application Partners. The elicitation of knowledge from Domain Experts is based on well known techniques like interviews, card sorting and laddering, already introduced in literature, while the extraction of knowledge from digital resources is based on algorithms and tools for term extraction described in (Pammer, Schier, & Lindstaedt, 2007). The key aspect of this phase is twofold: first, the methodology has to support an effective and rapid knowledge acquisition from Domain Experts, who are often rarely available and scarcely motivated towards modelling; second the methodology has to ease the process of modelling by reusing knowledge already present in digital format in the organisation.
    • Phase 2. Informal Modelling. The goal of this phase is to start from the knowledge elicited in Phase 1 and provide an informal but structured and rather complete description of the different models which will constitute the APOSDLE knowledge base. These models concern (i) the processes and tasks a user can perform in the organisation, (ii) the specific domain of affaires (application domain) a user want to learn about with APOSDLE, and (iii) the learning goals a user can have in the organisation inside the specific domain of affaires. The descriptions of the informal models are obtaining by filling pre-defined templates provided in a Semantic Wiki. The use of a Semantic Wiki allows to describe the elements of the different models in an informal manner using the Natural Language. However, at the same time it allows to structure the descriptions so that they can be easily (and often automatically) translated in formal models, without forcing the Application Partners to become experts in the formal languages used to produce the formal models. The key aspect of the informal modelling is to provide the Application Partners with tools that support informal modelling – and thus hide the complexity of formal languages – but at the same time are not mere textual editors and provide some typical facilities of modelling tools, such as the possibility to have a (possibly graphical) overview of the entire model.
    • Phase 3. Formal Modelling and Integration. In this phase the informal descriptions of the task model and of the domain model are transformed in formal models. The current version of the methodology supports the automatic translation of the domain model in an OWL ontology, and a manual translation of the task model in a YAWL workflow. Additionally, the information about the learning goals contained in the informal models is automatically extracted and used by the Task And Competency Tool (TACT for short), to help the Application Partners to formally specify learning goals. The output of this phase is a first version of the APOSDLE Knowledge Base. The key aspect of this phase is to ease the transformation from informal to formal as much as possible to avoid duplication of work and to make full use of the rich informal models produced during phase 2.
    • Phase 4. Validation & Revision. In this phase the APOSDLE Knowledge Base is evaluated and possibly revised. The current version of the methodology provides the support for checking automatically, via SPARQL queries, different aspects (properties) of the APOSDLE knowledge base and of its single components. The results of these check are evaluated and used to revise the knowledge base, if needed. The key aspects of this phase are first to provide an accurate set of tests for the APSODLE knowledge base, and second to allow the Domain Experts to validate the models obtained. This second aspect is particularly challenging as the Domain Experts usually are not familiar with formal models.

This methodology has been accurately followed by the Application Partners to build their specific APOSDLE Knowledge Base.

Dissemination, Standardisation and Exploitation Report

This document gives an overview of the activities the APOSDLE project consortium has undertaken in the first and second project year in the areas of dissemination, standardisation and exploitation with a focus on year 2. Moreover, we give a plan on how these activities will continue in the remainder of the project.

The project kept its momentum with the dissemination activities and increased the focus to reach businesses and industry. After 7 scientific publications in year 1, 14 scientific papers were published in year 2. Also, several invited talks were held, and again the project participated in the most important dissemination events (such as the EC-TEL, the I-Know, and the Online Educa). Highlights include the organisation of the I-Know conference and special tracks, as well as several organised events at the I-Know. The project also extended more effort into reaching business and industry communities. Several industrial tutorials and focus groups were organized in year 2. Also, the Knowledge Work Performance Network was initiated to focus the attempts of keeping contact to companies interested in the APOSDLE project and its results.

A further objective of WP 07 is to promote the adoption of standards and the awareness of standardisation activities in all the technological aspects relevant to APOSDLE, and to encourage the engagement with standardisation efforts, by contributing to ongoing standardisation forums, and disseminating specifications. The standardisation activity performed in WP 07 during the first two years of the project has focused mainly on adoption of standards and awareness of standardisation activities across several technological areas of the project in order to ensure the usage of the latest updates and advancements of the standardisation bodies into the design and realisation of the APOSDLE system, right from the beginning. This deliverable reports a summary of the main ongoing and planned standardisation activities within the APOSDLE project. These activities are also reported in the Standardisation Wiki1, which has been set up during the second year of the project to monitor the progress in important standardisation activities and general technological developments of interest to the project.

Demonstration Activities 1 (Plan)

The Demonstration work package is concerned with demonstrating the APOSDLE platform and applications. It covers necessary work to prepare and provide an “APOSDLE demonstrator” at some technical partner sites and at the application partners. The goal is to demonstrate the results to interested parties outside the consortium. However, this task depends heavily on existing prototypes (mainly the advanced prototypes after month 24 of the project) from the other work packages.

The main goals of the APOSDLE demonstration activities are to create awareness in different potential target groups outside the project consortium and to motivate them to access the APOSDLE Pilot Environment (set up in WP IX Training). Experience shows that decision-makers and beneficiaries can much easier be convinced about new methodologies and technologies, platforms or tools, if they can see and “feel” them at physical demonstrations. Therefore it is essential to include activities in APOSDLE to educate all potential decision-makers about the possibilities of the newly developed results.

The demonstration of concrete, tangible benefits of the APOSDLE system are essential, when it comes to creating awareness among potential users and customers. Moreover the ability to establish convincing demonstrations is a fundamental feature for attracting the attention of managers and decision-makers. All partners are involved in demonstration activities. CNM will lead the demonstration activities, supported especially by the other application partners CCI, EADS, and ISN. The research and industrial partners will contribute with particular adaptation work necessary to complete prototypes for demonstration.

The planning of demonstration activities is highly related to task VII.2 “Exploitation” and includes:

• finding technology partners and reference customers

• near-market scenarios

• appropriate venues for technology disclosure, competitive landscape and product differentiation

• mid- and long-term strategic fit with the product development roadmaps of the commercial APOSDLE partners.

Most of these issues are addressed in task VII.2 and will be taken into account for the planning of demonstration activities. The Demonstration Plan will be updated on a yearly basis, taking into account the developments and incremental maturity of the prototype.

The content for the demonstration of the prototypes 2 to 4 will comprise the following:

• Objective of the demonstration, i.e. what is envisaged by demonstrating the respective prototype?

• Target groups, i.e. which kind of users will be relevant for demonstrating the respective prototype?

• Demonstration content, i.e. what will be shown to the potential customers and how will the demonstration be organised?

• Organisation of demonstration activities, i.e. how the demonstration will be arranged from organisational point of view?

• Motivation and preparation of the potential customers, i. e. how to make the users take part in the demonstration sessions and get them to interact with the APOSDLE consortium and use the APOSDLE system?

• Venues for the technology disclosure, i.e. where will the APOSDLE system be installed and presented to the public, how will the technical infrastructure look like?

• Technical set-up, i.e. how will the technical preparation of the APOSDLE demonstrator be organised?

• Evaluation and Feedback, i.e. what feedback is given by the potential users, taking part in the demonstration phase?

Contextualized Cooperation Concept Version 1

This document describes an integrated concept of work-integrated cooperative learning within the APOSDLE project as developed since change of responsibilities for WP III in August 2007.

The APOSDLE contextualized cooperation concept mainly focuses on

• Introducing the concept of cooperation as »interaction to exchange information including coordination, communication and/or collaboration« instead of supporting only collaboration as »interacting to reach a common goal« (see section 4)

• Modelling APOSDLE contextualized cooperation process-oriented from a user’s perspective and documenting the contextualized cooperation process in a format easily to be discussed in interdisciplinary teams such as the APOSDLE consortium (see section 8)

• Implementing an APOSDLE contextualized cooperation framework by integrating as much existing software tools and services as possible to provide cooperation functionality instead of implementing the required functionality into one tool (see section 9).

Furthermore, the APOSDLE contextualized cooperation concept

• Explains basic terminology relevant to the field of contextualized cooperation (see section 5)

• Analyses relevant preconditions given through APOSDLE’s target group, context and implementation and to be taken as a baseline for developing the contextualized cooperation approach (see section 6)

• Introduces the concept of cooperation spaces from a knowledge management perspective (see section 5)

• Describes the GUI design of cooperation functionality to be provided by the APOSDLE system from a user interface design and usability point of view (see section 10)

• Discusses other relevant aspects, namely APOSDLE contextualized cooperation as a sociotechnical system as well as privacy issues (see section 9)

All these aspects of the APOSDLE contextualized cooperation concept are highly interrelated; some of them are thoroughly elaborated, for others we present just initial ideas and first findings. Parts of this
concept are already implemented as components of the 2nd APOSDLE prototype delivered at the same time as this document.

Conceptual Framework & Architecture Version 1

learning and collaboration activities in the context of knowledge workers’ everyday work processes and within their computer based work environments. Support should be provided by means of a generic application that is not domain specific.

Achieving this goal requires conceptual as well as a technological solutions to many different challenges and problems. This deliverable describes the conceptual problems encountered and solutions proposed for the first and second prototypes of the project. Given the scope of the document it is hard to compress its message in only a few lines, so many relevant aspects are omitted from this summary.

In the most general sense, the greatest challenge is hidden in the phrase “not domain specific”. This implies that the APOSDLE system can easily be adjusted to and fit in existing work practice in a variety of organisations. More in particular, this implies that the domain of work is not known in advance, that information to be used for supporting learning at work is very heterogeneous and not specifically designed for this purpose and, finally, the information resources can reside anywhere in the document base of an organisation. Furthermore, the social network people rely on to support each other during work is not known either, nor the many different ways they interact with each other. This leads to the three major challenges listed below. For each challenge we briefly describe the kind of solution pursued in the first two prototypes of the project.

The three major challenges are:

• Real time learning – APOSDLE aims at supporting the knowledge worker in learning situations within her current work task. Learner support needs to be adapted to a user’s work context and her experiences, and should be short, and easy to apply. Solution pursued – User’s work context and current task detection by utilitzing task models, automated task detection algorithms and extensive user profiling. Providing learning events that are created at the moment the worker needs them while executing a concrete work task. Embedding peer to peer and expert support by communication facilities that take the work and learning context into account.

• Real computational environment – APOSDLE aims at providing a variety of tools which are integrated seamlessly within her desktop and allow one-point access to relevant back-end systems of her organization (via some intelligent middleware). Tools need to be inconspicuous and easy to use. Solution pursued – Developing several computer readable models and a meta-model that allow a unified view on the work domain in the shape of a general knowledge base. Access to learning support through a single application present in a side bar.

• Real content – APOSDLE aims at dynamically creating learning content out of resources from the underlying organizational memory (which originally were not intended for instruction). Resources need to be compared, analyzed and retrieved based on their relationships to each other and the user context. Solution pursued – Creating homogeneous access to a variety of organizational resources stored in different back-end systems. Creation of learning events and retrieving of knowledge artefacts based on semantic annotations of resources. Annotations are achieved by combining manual annotation, automated methods based on machine learning principles and user feedback thereof. Associative retrieval of the organizational resources is used to find relevant material that is related to the information presented to users in learning events.