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APOSDLE-Publishable-Executive-Summary

Publishable Executive Summary of all Project Activities from March 2006 - February 2007

Training Activities 3

This document gives an overview of the activities the APOSDLE project consortium has undertaken in the last 12 project months (M18-M30) in the areas of internal and external training. Moreover, we give a plan on how these activities will continue in the remainder of the project with an emphasis on the next two years. The purpose of the training activities in work package (WP) 09 serves two main goals: consortium internal training to ensure a smooth cooperation of all consortium partners and external training to organisations outside the consortium. Furthermore, related to the core ideas of APOSDLE the philosophy of workplace learning will be integrated in the APOSDLE training activities as well. Firstly the components of the training plan (internal and external training) are briefly presented and explained. Then the progress achieved since the last deliverable on training activities (DIX.2) due in M18 is summarised. This is followed by a detailed description of our current “General APOSDLE Training Framework”. This consists of three activities - APOSDLE Tutorials, Mini-Tutorials and User Trainings) that will be further improved and evaluated and can be carried out by all partners. Finally the next steps in the work package 09 “Training” are described. Moreover the training plan form which has been distributed among the APOSDLE consortium, as well as the APOSDLE manual developed for the user trainings is attached in the appendix.

APOSDLE-D08.2-JRS-submissionSheet-signed

Demonstration Plan 2

This deliverable is an update of D8.1, the first Demonstration Activities Plan developed one year ago. Overall the Demonstration work package is concerned with demonstrating the APOSDLE platform and applications. It covers necessary work to prepare and provide an “APOSDLE demonstrator” at some technical partner sites and at the application partners. The goal is to demonstrate the results to interested parties outside the consortium. However, this task depends heavily on existing prototypes (mainly the advanced prototypes after month 24 of the project) from the other work packages. The main goals of the APOSDLE demonstration activities are to create awareness in different potential target groups outside the project consortium and to motivate them to access the APOSDLE Pilot Environment (set up in WP IX Training). Experience shows that decision-makers and beneficiaries can much easier be convinced about new methodologies and technologies, platforms or tools, if they can see and “feel” them at physical demonstrations. Therefore it is essential to include activities in APOSDLE to educate all potential decision-makers about the possibilities of the newly developed results. The demonstration of concrete, tangible benefits of the APOSDLE system are essential, when it comes to creating awareness among potential users and customers. Moreover the ability to establish convincing demonstrations is a fundamental feature for attracting the attention of managers and decision-makers. All partners are involved in demonstration activities. SAP took over workpackage leadership from CNM is leading the demonstration activities, supported especially by the application partners CNM, CCI, EADS, and ISN. The research and industrial partners will contribute with particular adaptation work necessary to complete prototypes for demonstration. The planning of demonstration activities is highly related to task VII.2 “Exploitation” and includes:

  • finding technology partners and reference customers,
  • near-market scenarios,
  • appropriate venues for technology disclosure, competitive landscape and product differentiation,
  • mid- and long-term strategic fit with the product development roadmaps of the commercial APOSDLE partners.

Most of these issues are addressed in task VII.2 and will be taken into account for the planning of demonstration activities. The Demonstration Plan will be updated on a yearly basis, taking into account the developments and incremental maturity of the prototype. The content for the demonstration of the prototypes 2 to 4 will comprise the following:

  • Objective of the demonstration, i.e. what is envisaged by demonstrating the respective prototype?
  • Target groups, i.e. which kind of users will be relevant for demonstrating the respective prototype?
  • Demonstration content, i.e. what will be shown to the potential customers and how will the demonstration be organised?
  • Organisation of demonstration activities, i.e. how the demonstration will be arranged from organisational point of view?
  • Motivation and preparation of the potential customers, i.e. how to make the users take part in the demonstration sessions and get them to interact with the APOSDLE consortium and use the APOSDLE system?
  • Venues for the technology disclosure, i.e. where will the APOSDLE system be installed and presented to the public, how will the technical infrastructure look like?
  • Technical set-up, i.e. how will the technical preparation of the APOSDLE demonstrator be organised?
  • Evaluation and Feedback, i.e. what feedback is given by the potential users, taking part in the demonstration phase?

APOSDLE Use Scenarios & Requirements for 3rd Prototypes

This document presents the user and system requirements for the third prototype of the APOSDLE system (P3); it does not include the set of requirements that have been previously agreed upon for delivery in month 36 of the project (documented in D VI.3). The document builds upon other reports produced in WPVI, specifically:

  • D VI.2: Use Cases and Application Requirements 1 (First Prototype)
  • D VI.3: Use Cases and Application Requirements 2 (Second Prototype)
  • D VI.7 Formative evaluation document
  • D VI.13: APOSDLE Social solutions aligned to 2nd prototype
  • D VI.15: Scope of APOSDLE Target Group, Problems and Needs

The requirements for P3 were gathered from various sources, including:

  • Focus groups. They were held with a multinational manufacturing and services provider in the Aerospace, Marine and Energy markets counting thousands of employees, and a small Human-Computer Interaction consultancy providing user-centred design and research services to UK and international clients and partners. Both organisations were external to the APOSDLE consortium and the sessions yielded additional insights into the perceptions and opinions of potential customers of APOSDLE as well as possible requirements.
  • Findings from the Formative Evaluation meeting. The meeting, held at City on the 15th and 16th May 2008, saw application and technical partners discussing their views on APOSDLE and the implementation of its second prototype (P2). The exchanges were audio and video-recorded and later analysed for possible requirements on P3
  • The online diaries used in P2’s formative evaluation. The diaries were used for the participants to record their thoughts, reactions, experiences and opinions during their use of P2; they provided valuable data on possible requirements for P3.
  • The social solutions aligned to P2. A deliverable exploring the ways in which APOSDLE needed to fit organisations? environment, culture and practices was produced (D VI.13); it detailed how these factors could affect the system?s adoption and integration, and its analysis yielded some insights into additional requirements.
  • The findings were analysed by Requirements Engineers at City and presented in adapted VOLERE templates (Robertson & Robertson, 2006).

APOSDLE-D06.4-CITY-Requirements3rdPrototype_v05

Workplace Learning Literature Extension to the original version of D II.5

This Deliverable describes the results of the second WorkPlace Learning Study. The goal of the second WPLS was to obtain more insight into the relation between work-learn situations and the knowledge sources and communication media people use to acquire the knowledge needed to perform tasks at hand better and gain knowledge about the related topics. This context is central to the APOSDLE solution, as it intends to combine the three spaces people at work can be seen as operating in: the Work Space, the Knowledge Space and the Learning Space, which are connected through communication. More in general, it also addresses the question of how developmental relatedness, using knowledge sources and communication media, is shaped during self-directed workplace learning.

To theoretically underpin this research, the main theoretical perspective chosen was the Media Richness Theory. This theory links properties of tasks, uncertainty (about how to perform a task) and equivocality (what should be the results of a task), to knowledge sources and communication media that can be used to exchange knowledge about tasks at hand. In particular it states that when the uncertainty and equivocality of tasks increase, richer knowledge sources and communication media, media that can convey more cues, are needed to guarantee an effective transfer of knowledge. Based on predictions from this theory, support for selecting the best fitting knowledge sources and communication media in APOSDLE can be derived. In addition two other theoretical perspectives were briefly touched upon: Knowledge Space Theory and the Social Influence Model of Technology Use. The first states that during work, people will access each of the three spaces mentioned above to solve problems. The second claims that the Media Richness Theory is incomplete as organizational norms and habits can inhibit or promote the use of communication media, even if these don?t fit the task at hand well. In the study, two different situations a person can be in were addressed: a situation where the person plays the role of the knowledge seeker or learner (learner situation) and a situation where the person plays the role of the knowledge provider or knowledgeable person sharing knowledge with someone else (knowledge sharing situation). People participating in the research could „construct? a specific combination of a work situation and a knowledge need (from a predefined list) and report about the knowledge source(s) and communication medium (or media) they used in that situation. The study was carried out by means of an on-line questionnaire. Participants were recruited by using personal contacts and mailing lists from partners in the APOSDLE project. The sample consisted of 125 persons. The composition of this sample was almost the same as the sample in the first WorkPlace learning study, permitting a comparison. Overall, the results confirm to a large extent the major finding from the first workplace learning study that personal contacts are very important, but must be combined with documented sources in a support environment. It is less easy to derive, at the moment of writing, specific design guidelines in this respect from the data that differ from the design of the second APOSDLE Prototype. In this sense, the outcomes are more confirmatory for the course the project has taken until now. The results for the assumption that the Media Richness Theory can provide the basis for designing communication support in APOSDLE, shows that this must be questioned as about half the predictions could not be confirmed. At least additional analyses are needed to explore in more detail the possible role of other factors, like experience in the job. For the two alternative theoretical perspectives, it can be said that access to the different spaces of the Knowledge Space Theory differs for different work-learn situations is different, with the work space dominating when people are in the situation when they are new in the company and have to find things out. However, these differences could not be confirmed statistically. As for the Social Influence Model of Technology Use, there are only minor effects of organizational norms and communication media behaviour of colleagues on the selection of media.

Finally, it can be said that in more general terms the study has provided insight in more detail into the way developmental related processes are taking shape and the role personal and documented sources play in this process. Overall it seems that a great deal of variety characterizes these processes. This variety is due to strong contextual factors, which is probably not surprising in a situation where employees who are learning at the workplace, have substantial discretion in shaping their own learning and „instruction?. In other words, less control seems to generate more diversity. The challenge for supporting self-directed workplace learning is to support this variety without falling in the trap of creating a straitjacket. From an instructional point of view, for example based on instructional theory, the big question is „how good is good enough? or learning to navigate between the devil (too much support) and the deep blue sea (no support at all)

Publishable Executive Summary Year 2

Publishable Executive Summary of all Project Activities from March 2007 - February 2008

Workplace Learning Study 2

This Deliverable describes the results of the second WorkPlace Learning Study. The goal of the second WPLS was to obtain more insight into the relation between work-learn situations and the knowledge sources and communication media people use to acquire the knowledge needed to perform tasks at hand better and gain knowledge about the related topics. This context is central to the APOSDLE solution, as it intends to combine the three spaces people at work can be seen as operating in: the Work Space, the Knowledge Space and the Learning Space, with are connected through communication.

To theoretically underpin this research, the main theoretical perspective chosen was the Media Richness Theory. This theory links properties of tasks, uncertainty (about how to perform a task) and equivocality (what should be the results of a task), to knowledge sources and communication media that can be used to exchange knowledge about tasks at hand. In particular it states that when the uncertainty and equivocality of tasks increase, richer knowledge sources and communication media, media that can convey more cues, are needed to guarantee an effective transfer of knowledge. Based on predictions from this theory, support for selecting the best fitting knowledge sources and communication media in APOSDLE can be derived. In addition two other theoretical perspectives were briefly touched upon: Knowledge Space Theory and the Social Influence Model of Technology Use. The first states that during work, people will access each of the three spaces mentioned above to solve problems. The second claims that the Media Richness Theory is incomplete as organizational norms and habits can inhibit or promote the use of communication media, even if these don’t fit the task at hand well.

In the study, two different situations a person can be in were addressed: a situation where the person plays the role of the knowledge seeker or learner (learner situation) and a situation where the person plays the role of the knowledge provider or knowledgeable person sharing knowledge with someone else (knowledge sharing situation). People participating in the research could ‘construct’ a specific combination of a work situation and a knowledge need (from a predefined list) and report about the knowledge source(s) and communication medium (or media) they used in that situation.

The study was carried out by means of an on-line questionnaire. Participants were recruited by using personal contacts and mailing lists from partners in the APOSDLE project. The sample consisted of 125 persons. The composition of this sample was almost the same as the sample in the first WorkPlace learning study, permitting a comparison.

Overall, the results confirm to a large extent the major finding from the first workplace learning study that personal contacts are very important, but must be combined with documented sources in a support environment. It is less easy to derive, at the moment of writing, specific design guidelines in this respect from the data that differ from the design of the second APOSDLE Prototype. In this sense, the outcomes are more confirmatory for the course the project has taken until now.

The results for the assumption that the Media Richness Theory can provide the basis for designing communication support in APOSDLE, shows that this must be questioned as about half the predictions could not be confirmed. At least additional analyses are needed to explore in more detail the possible role of other factors, like experience in the job. For the two alternative theoretical perspectives, it can be said that access to the different spaces of the Knowledge Space Theory differs for different work-learn situations is different, with the work space dominating when people are in the situation when they are new in the company and have to find things out. However, these differences could not be confirmed statistically. As for the Social Influence Model of Technology Use, there are only minor effects of organizational norms and communication media behavior of colleagues on the selection of media.

Use Cases & Application Requirements 2

This document provides a specification of the user and system requirements for the second and third APOSDLE socio-technical solution, including the second prototype and associated social mechanisms, both of which will be delivered in month 24. Requirements have been written using terminology from the current project glossary to be updated in future project deliverables. As with deliverable D VI.2, which specified the requirements on the first APOSDLE prototype, the development of this document has therefore played an important role in creating links between different on-going activities within the project.

The document presents:

• i* strategic dependency and strategic rationale models of the socio-technical system, specifying goals and soft goals of different actors in these socio-technical systems from which requirements statements were derived;

• Satisfaction arguments that associate user requirements – desirable properties of users who will use the APOSDLE software solution – and system requirements – desirable properties of the software solutions, arguments that define why the system requirements, if satisfied, will lead to satisfaction of user requirements, and first-cut assumptions that need to be true for the argument to hold;

• Use case specifications for the second prototype to define the desired behaviour of the second version of the APOSDLE socio-technical solution, in the form of a use case diagram and associated use case specifications;

• User and system requirements identified by end of month 15 on the APOSDLE socio-technical system, identified and documented by both technology and application partners;

• An extended project glossary.

This document builds on other materials produced within WP VI, and in particular on:

• The requirements and design visions behind the first APOSDLE prototype that was produced in deliverable D VI.2 and;

• The first APOSDLE prototype that was developed from those requirements and design visions.

It will also form a basis for later deliverables, including D IV.4 - the Software Design and Development Plan for the second prototype.