The problem of the information society today is that knowledge workers are overwhelmed by the amount of information they get. This creates the need of a filter: the possibility to find relevant information in an easy and systematic way. In fact, working at a knowledge intensive workplace and retrieving information is a kind of learning – informal learning – which takes place at daily work. This type of learning includes reading documents and digital snippets, asking questions and searching for the help of other colleagues.

This paper investigates how people at knowledge intensive workplaces can be supported through a graphical integration of existing information in a contextualized way to fulfill their given work task. We present research on software that visualizes the information of knowledge workers, tasks, digital resources, people and the relations between them. In addition context information is taken to enrich the output to provide an intuitive and appropriate tool for knowledge workers. As the visualization tool we used the TopicMap Viewer to visualize the data and context information together. We will show all the necessary steps to offer these contextualized information in a supporting visualization.

To verify the usefulness of our approach, we did a quantitative and qualitative user study to see if contextualized information visualization is helpful to knowledge workers for a specific scenario. Therefore we analyzed how beginners or new employees benefit from by such a tool. The results clearly show the advantages of our solution. Contextualized visualization substantially boosts efficiency and effectiveness of knowledge workers, because of time savings and avoidance of failures.

Index Terms—Context Awareness, Electronic Workplace, Informal E-Learning, Knowledge-intensive Work.

An online forum as a user diary for remote workplace

This paper presents and discusses the use of an online diary for the remote evaluation at the workplace of a new knowledge management tool that supports selfdirected learning at work, the second APOSDLE prototype. The workplace evaluation was carried out collaboratively in four different organizations, across different European countries. The online diary was built with the open source discussion forum software phpBB. Used in combination with other research methods, the diary allowed gathering data on the system design and performance as well as the user experience. Its flexibility met participants’ preferences and needs. With its use, the diary became the communication tool between users, researchers and developers, giving voice to the users in the evaluation and redesign process.

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Training Activities 4

Training activities in work package (WP) 09 serves two main goals: consortium internal training to ensure a smooth cooperation of all consortium partners and external training to organisations outside the consortium. Compared to previous deliverables in the training work package, this document focuses on the activities the APOSDLE project consortium has undertaken in the last 12 project months (M30-M42) in the areas of internal training. Moreover, we give a plan on how these activities will continue in the remainder of the project with an emphasis on the next year. Based on the feedback during our 3rd annual project review the APOSDLE consortium decided to shift external training activities - which go hand in hand with dissemination and exploitation activities - to one joint deliverable at the end of the project (D 7.6 Exploitation Activities), which reports on all exploitation activities, including those related activities from demonstration and external training. The main purpose of this deliverable is to roll out a framework how the APOSDLE system can be introduced into a company. Introducing a new system is not only about training the people on using it and giving them support during usage, its more about motivating people in using a new system and communicating the benefits through the new system. The final results of the evaluation of this internal Training Framework will be included also as recommendation for training in D 7.6 Exploitation Activities. The document is structured as follows: Firstly the components of the training plan are briefly presented and explained. Through aligning training aspects (D 9.3) for the 3rd Prototype with social solutions recommendations (D 6.13) some results of this work will be presented. This is followed by a detailed description of our “APOSDLE Training Framework”: This concept takes into account tactics accompanying the process of introducing the APOSDLE system, tactics on showing the users how to work with this system and ongoing support through the APOSDLE Help Section. Finally the Application Partners detailed training plans are attached as well as screenshots of our APOSDLE Help System.

Demonstration Plan 3

The first part of this document gives an overview of the activities the APOSDLE project consortium plans in the forth project year in the area of demonstration, i.e. spreading APOSDLE technology and concepts in an applied industrial setting. We present these demonstration activities by partner. Parts of the demonstration activities are targeted at internal development organisations (such as at EADS and SAP), other parts activate external contacts such as the German insurance company BIG direct, other parts are in the form of industry-oriented exhibitions.
The second part of the document describes demonstration activities done in M25-M36. The demonstrations were based on components of APOSDLE prototype 2 and 3, especially on the contextualised knowledge delivery, concepts from APOSDLE browse and on the context detection. They targeted at the internal research, innovation and development organisations at SAP as well as at the demo jam, a competition at the Darmstadt University of Technology.

Integrated Modelling Methodology Version 2

This docmuent describes the second version of the APOSDLE Integrated Modelling Methodology. This methodology, which updates the previous version described in Deliverable D1.3 (Integrated Modelling Methodology - First Version), guides the process of creation of the application domain dependent parts of the APOSDLE Knowledge Base. The APOSDLE Knowledge Base provides the basis for reasoning within the APOSDLE System.

Compared with this first version several changes were made both in the structure of the methodology and in the tools which are used to support it. These changes take into accout the extensive feedback that was collected during the development of the first version of the Application Partner Domain Models, which were used in the APOSDLE Prototype 2. The second version of the methodology consists of four main phases, which cover the entire process of model creation, from the initial selection of the application domain to its final specification:

Phase 0. Scope & Boundaries. In this phase the scope and boundaries of the application domain are determined and documented.

Phase 1. Knowledge Acquisition. The goal of this phase is the acquisition of knowledge about the application domains that have to be formalised and integrated in the APOSDLE knowledge base.

Phase 2. Modelling of Domain + Tasks. Starting from the knowledge elicited in Phase 1, in this phase a complete formal description of the domain and task models, which are part of the APOSDLE knowledge base, is provided: the domain model is about the specific work domain (application domain) a user wants to learn about with APOSDLE, while the task model concerns the activities and tasks a user can perform in the organisation.

Phase 3. Modelling of Learning Goals. In this phase, a formal specification of the learning goal model is produced.

The second version of the Integrated Modelling Methodology has been accurately followed by each Application Partner to build their specific APOSDLE Knowledge Base. The specific models created are described in Deliverable D6.9 - Second Version of Application Partner Domain Models.

The feedback obtained from the experience of building the specific APOSDLE Knowledge Bases for the 3rd Prototype was used for a careful evaluation of the IMM - Second version, whose findings are reported in the final part of the deliverable.

Dissemination, Standardisation and Exploitation Report and Plan III

This document gives an overview of the activities the APOSDLE project consortium has undertaken in the three project year in the areas of dissemination and standardization with a focus on year 3. Moreover, we give a plan on how these activities will continue in the remainder of the project. The project kept its momentum with the dissemination activities and increased the focus to reach businesses and industry. Overall 31 dissemination activities were reported in year 3, with over a third of these targeting business and industry groups. Three industry demonstrations were held as a result of these activities with more being planned for the final project year. In terms of scientific output, year 3 saw 23 scientific publications (after 14 in the previous year). The impact of these publications was also higher with several more prestigious conference appearances (e.g. CHI, AH, ISWC, EKAW) and a couple of Journal publications. Other highlights include the organization of the I-Know conference and special tracks, organization of the Prolearn/EATEL Summer School, and broad participation at the EC-TEL conference. An APOSDLE movie was produced and published on the APOSDLE website and on Youtube (with more than 700 views). APOSDLE also participated with a stand at the ICT event in Lyon where the stand was voted amongst the top ten best stands, and with a stand at the 3rd National German IT Event. A further objective of WP7 is to promote the adoption of standards and the awareness of standardisation activities in all the technological aspects relevant to APOSDLE, and to encourage the engagement with standardisation efforts, by contributing to ongoing standardisation groups, and disseminating specifications. The standardisation activity performed in WP7 during the first three years of the project has focused mainly on adoption of standards and awareness of standardisation activities across several technological areas of the project in order to ensure the usage of the latest updates and advancements of the standardisation bodies into the design and realisation of the APOSDLE system. During the third year of the project, members of the APOSDLE team have also actively contributed to standards and standardisation groups of interest for the project, like in the case of the IEEE LTSC Study Group on Competencies, or the W3C Video on the web standardisation activities. This deliverable reports a summary of the main ongoing and planned standardisation activities within the APOSDLE project. These activities are also documented in the APOSDLE Standardisation Wiki, which is used to monitor and report the progress in important standardisation activities and general technological developments of interest to the project.

Third Prototype APOSDLE

This document reports on the “Third Prototype APOSDLE”, an available prototype system which is running on dedicated project servers. This document describes the main features of this prototype, giving also insight into development issues without the need of having access to the actual prototype.
The base for this deliverable is the “Software Architecture Document” together with the “Use Scenarios & Requirements for 3rd Prototypes”, where a detailed description of requirements and architecture is given (see 1.3 Related Documents). According to the Description of Work the Second Prototype APOSDLE is subdivided into five Deliverables (D I.9, D II.9, D III.9, D IV.9, D V.9). This document combines all these deliverables into a single document, thus making it easier to access information about the prototype in its entirety. It is structured according to the types of software components, and not strictly following the work package structure. By the nature of a truly Integrated Project, work packages contribute to all parts of the prototype. The following list gives an overview about on these chapters and which work packages mainly contributed to them:

  • Modelling Tools – D 1.9
  • Client Applications – D 1.9, D 2.9, D 3.9
  • Platform Services – D 4.9, D 5.9, D 2.9

In addition to these component specific chapters, there is one chapter which is common to all parts of the prototype, illustrating a guided tour through the prototype from the view of an end user. This third prototype is an important milestone in the APOSDLE project. It is the last major iteration of the software developing process and will be deployed and evaluated directly at the application partners.

Conceptual Framework & Architecture Version 2

This deliverable gives an overview of the overall APOSDLE design approach to work-integrated learning support. For an in-depth discussion of the work-integrated learning paradigm related to informal learning theories please refer to the integrated Deliverable D II.8 & D III.5 APOSDLE Perspective on Self-Directed Work-integrated Learning. This deliverable will focus exclusively on our approach to design support mechanisms for work-integrated learning as prototypically implemented within APOSDLE Prototype 3. Specifically this deliverable addresses three major APOSDLE design concepts: models, user?s work context and user profiles; integrated work, learn, and cooperation support; and the knowledge artefact lifecycle. We apply a battery of semantic and scruffy approaches to each of these concepts in order to design learning support flexible enough to cope with challenges of work-integrated learning. By doing so, we draw from approaches to context-aware systems, user modelling, adaptive system design, learning and instruction methods, recommendation systems, retrieval and clustering algorithms as summarized in the following:

  • APOSDLE models and their relationships (Chapter 3)
  • User’s work context and user profiles (Chapter 4)
  • Integrated work, learn and cooperation support (Chapter 5)
  • Knowledge artefact lifecycle (Chapter 6)

The APOSDLE Approach to Self-directed Work-integrated Learning

This deliverable gives a comprehensive overview of the APOSDLE approach to Self-directed Work-integrated learning. In several deliverables written over the first two years of the project this topic was addressed in a distributed manner. Since this made it difficult for people not part of the project to understand our approach and background we made the effort to provide here a fully integrated perspective on work-integrated learning and how it can be supported. Specifically, this deliverable is the result of the tight integration of two previously separate deliverables: D2.8 “Review of general applicability of learning support over domains” (lead UT, now mainly comprising Chapter 5) and D3.5 “Contextualized Cooperation Concept Version 2” (lead FHG, now mainly comprising Chapter 6). The other chapters describe our common understanding on knowledge work, work-integrated learning, and the overall approach to support them (lead KC). It starts with outlining how the project conceptualizes „knowledge work?. Following the argumentation of Kelloway & Barling we see knowledge work primarily as an individual, discretionary activity. Thus, knowledge work is characterized as being a dimension of work, not an all or nothing property. To study it, one should focus on the use of knowledge in the workplace and not on properties of individuals or jobs. Next the notion of workplace learning is taken up, more precisely defined as work-integrated learning. It is seen as being truly integrated in current work processes and practices, making use of existing resources with the main goal of improving work performance. In terms of Eraut & Hirsh: learning activities located within work or learning practices. Work-integrated learning is mostly self-directed, meaning that the learner is empowered to take responsibility for their own learning activities, to choose means that allow them to carry out various learning activities and to choose access to various learning resources. In this sense the learner is her own instructor. During this self-directed learning, several learning functions must be carried out by the learner: preparatory functions, executive functions and closing functions. In addition, during work co-workers and other knowledgeable persons are very important sources for learning.


Heutige Forschungsprojekte im e-Learning-Umfeld vernachlässigen zu oft den Bezug zum Datenschutz und werfen damit Fragen des ethischen Forschens auf. Das vorliegende Papier analysiert Datenschutzfragen bei der Etablierung eines sozio-technischen Systems im Umfeld kleiner und mittlerer Unternehmen (KMU). Wir beziehen uns auf das Beispiel eines noch prototypischen e-Learning Systems. Dieses liefert dem Mitarbeiter eines KMU wissensintensive Medienartefakte, die zu den aktuellen Arbeitsaufgaben passen. Um diese Artefakte auswählen zu können, speichert und verwaltet das System kritische Daten wie die Kompetenzen der Benutzer, die bisher ausgeführten Arbeitsschritte, bisher ausgeführte Interaktionen mit Medienartefakten oder anderen Benutzern, die sich im System manifestieren. Wir zeigen, wie ein solches Daten verarbeitendes System die OECD-Datenschutzrichtlinie mit ihren Grundprinzipien Bekanntmachung, Zweckerklärung und -bindung, Zustimmung, Sicherheit, Auskunftspflicht, Zugang sowie Haftung berücksichtigen kann.

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